It has been unseasonably cold and rainy the past couple of days, so I thought I would tackle a little history project I have wanted to write about regarding a particular little penny press newspaper.
As of January 2012, The New York Times raised its daily price to $2.50! Think back to the penny press at the turn of the last century, have you ever wondered what such a paper would cost today, inflation adjusted? Answer: a quarter (Source Article: (Jeff Jarvis). The picture to the left is a copy of an original penny press newspaper which I own and bought in the south of France, in 1994. I had just completed my public relations degree and was studying the French language in Aix-en Provence. At the time, I considered not bringing the two antique newspapers with me because I and my two children were carrying backpacks and only one small rolling bag. I was afraid of damaging it on the flight back to the United States. I am so glad that I chose to hand carry it and it survived.
In the 1880′s, this newspaper only cost a penny! The original historic art print alone is priceless, in my humble opinion. Journalism has been a career thread which has run in our family, but I did not know that when I started my course work. I only learned of it later from my father once I began taking journalism courses during the second year during my undergraduate work. My grandmother, Edith Faulstich was a Philatelic journalist. Below is a short list regarding some of her writing history:
1)‘Newark Sunday News’ for 26 year (Nov. 24, 1946–1972)
2)‘The Record”, Hackensack, New Jersey ( 1961–1966)
3) ‘Bergen Evening Record” (January 16, 1922 -Sept 14, 1968)
Faulstich was also editor of: (see publication source addresses here)
4) ‘Postal History Journal’ from May 1957 (Vol.1. No.1) to 1967
5) ‘Western Stamp Collector’
7)‘The Essay-Proof Journal’
But, I digress a bit. As this is post is about this specific Penny Press newspaper from France.
The ” Little Diary ”is one of the oldest newspapers in France. It began publication in 1863 and the creation should be considered as one of the events most deeply embedded into the life of Parisians of yesteryear. In the history of the press, that is more that a mere episode, that is the memorable date of a revolution, not only in journalism but in social manners.
The present generation can not imagine what newspaper industry was like before the appearance of the five cent newspaper. This popular newspaper brought it within the reach of every budget in France. But, it was also during a time when the press did not enjoy any freedom of the Press.
Legislators had made it suspicious and was newspapers were relegated extensively. The Government of the day placed heavy bonds; censorship, jealous watching of publishers -very closely, and with the slightest hint of criticism, the slightest allusion to political bashing, heavy fines fell upon the publisher as thick as hail; to recidivism, that was the prohibition of the times. The prohibition of free speech, in France.
As a result it is enough to say that the masses of people, workers, employees, petty bourgeois were condemned not to read newspapers. The wealthy themselves are looked at twice before they subscribed to a newspaper. Some would only read the newspaper reading room, on the others’ subscriptions when they heard of their neighbors taking out a subscription to one of the largest newspapers of Paris.
Millaud had, by way of creating the Little Diary, other intentions. Rather, to give each person an every day look at life, an echo of national life: information, news story, inspired by the chronic current events, talks about the theater, variety, novels, but no politics! The Government Policy, that was then certain death. And news had to live. The Diary lived indeed.
~ Jean Lecocq. (Almanac 1940)
Le Petit Journal (Journal was sold for a penny: 5 centimes) on 1-2-1863 was created by Moses (said Polydore) Millaud, non-political and therefore not stamped, at half-size, consisting originally of four pages, eight pages as of 1898 and six in 1901.
The aim was to attract the maximum number of subscriptions and to attract advertising. The dominant strategy was to sell at the lowest possible price. In 1863, Moses Polydore Millaud widely publicized “Le Petit Journal” and is the first French newspaper whose strategy was to create access based on the sensational. The selling price was also low in order to make it a popular newspaper, for everyone.
For failing to pay the stamp (5 cents per issue) that made the business impossible, the newspaper was apolitical. The authorities of the Second Empire favored the development of this cheap sheet and its competitors.
After September 4, 1870, with the stamp removed, Le Petit Journal was able to talk politics.
Despite some crises – in 1870, more than 400,000 copies were sold, and in 1892, one million copies.
Girardin took control in 1873. In 1937, it drew more than 150,000 copies when it became the organ of the Social français.
Replié in Clermont-Ferrand in June 1940, Le Petit Journal lived, poorly, until 1944, during which time he/it received a monthly grant from the Vichy government. Schedules of weekly publications, the most famous was his Supplement illustrated in color, whose images offered a picturesque example of the sights and popular ideology of the century.
The success of this penny newspaper caused a surge in a new type of periodicals (eg the Petit Parisien. Le Petit Parisien founded by Louis Andrieux, 1879, the first No. 16-10-1870.
The press has, throughout of 19 th century, evolved according to its industries and new technical possibilities. After the 1881 Act and during the 1890s, the press was still characterized by diversity, each with its French newspaper owner.
At the end of the century, the ground was laid, for the crisis that will soon shake the country: newspapers become a real power of the people.
Printed on the rotary machine chrono-type Marinoni
The Diary, in those heroic days, had not his print to it. No one knew yet that a single printing process: the draw that flat n ‘impressed that a copy of four pages at once and, because of the slowness s’ did the work, inevitably it restricted the paper’s circulation. Readers soon answered so many of the calls, that the printing Serrière declared himself unable to drasw enough alone.
It was therefore necessary to provide for the best merchants at the time, and use multiple printers. However, printing at that time, was not a free industry. We had to open one, buy a patent, and patents, whose numbers were limited, were in the hands of the printers who guarded them jealously and shared customers by various specialties: Books, newspapers, catalogs, paperwork , etc.. Newspaper printing was grouped around the Grange-boat-and growing. One of the busiest was the printing Schiller, 10 and 11, Faubourg Montmartre: it was responsible for some of the copies of Diary.
The First Rotary Press
Hippolyte Marinoni could have been, in the words then of a spiritual writer, “a romantic hero for his own newspaper” The son of a policeman of Corsican origin, he had in his childhood, kept cattle. And, he was far from being ashamed of his humble origin. Marinoni was a laborer in a factory of hand presses and type-founder.
Finally, in 1872, he realized the extraordinary invention of the rotary press with automatic feeder and continuous paper, regularly pulling 40,000 copies per hour. Some years after, he built the great Marinoni rotary multicolor printing press, which churned out 20,000 copies from a single shot in six colors, which were printed as illustrated publications, succédanées of Petite Journal, including the Illustrated Diary , which were hand drawn, once a week, and printed up to twelve hundred thousand copies.
History of How the “Little Illustrated Journal” was Published
(Imperfectly Translated from French). The Department of this newspaper asked its readers to stay in close communion and this wish was fulfilled for a longtime as a result of the huge number of letters received, offering approval and very sincere encouragement. Therefore, we thought it would be nice to keep the paper alive, showing a little of thier lives, and the succession of different yet consistent efforts, necessary for the manufacture of a newspaper, and to penetrate deep Behind the Scenes – dare I say – of a large illustrated weekly like ours.
Here, as elsewhere, the division of labor was required. Above all, who is the Director, based on experience and knowledge to satisfy the public, giving directions to follow and supervise its execution. Under him, the writing service, editor, general secretary, implements and oversaw that her designs are shown. Thus, each week, the Director took care of the editorial materials, which would form the number for the following week. These materials were of two kinds: first, what is known in terms of the business, the “copy”, that is to say, articles and stories, then the illustrations, including drawings and photographs.
It was very delicate work back then, not only because it had to please the greatest number of readers, because everyone did not have the same tastes, but also because it had to be interesting to follow the news. News was and still is fleeting. What is interesting one day may no longer be the week after. But the manufacture of a weekly is infinitely longer than a day. We may at any time be too late.
The materials were gathered into the hands of the editor. It then went immediately to the internal executing agencies. The “copy” first, was sent to he service composition without review. Previously, they couldn’t ignore it, because they knew that the composition of type had to be done by hand. The characters, distributed into the type compartments with lead ”breaks”, for each and every line of news which was laid out one by one, all by hand by a worker who formed lines. It was very time consuming labor.
”Today”, much has been simplified and enables this work to be completed by using machines called linotypes. These have a linotype keyboard not unlike that of typewriters. Just to the operator – which is often an operator – to press each key on the keyboard so that the matrix of the corresponding letter comes down in a compartment intended for receiving. When the line is complete, a single shot lever activates the machine. The set of matrices is shown in the orifice of a home with molten lead. The result is a small tablet which bears on one of its edges, the embossed characters of the entire line. Matrices are automatically removed and distributed into the store from which they emerge, again, then the operator presses the corresponding key.
Just as there were typists more skillful than others, there were also more skilled operators. On average, a good operator dialed 6,000 letters, 150 lines per hour.
The picture to the left is titled” Component of youth operators for creating newspaper articles sitting at the linotype machine”
When an entire article or a story was composed, we made a test by passing over the surface of the thick ink, and then laying on top of it a sheet of paper and hitting it with a big brush. The test thus obtained wass assigned to a grader, who read the test “copy” and pointed out errors in the composition. Errors were corrected to the linotype by redoing the entire line.
Only the titles were still made with movable type, one by one by hand. It was the beginning of the use of making specialized headlines.
Meanwhile, the illustrations are processed by the photo etching. The illustrations were created in black ink and photographs are reproduced by a process, common in those days, whose origins date back to Talbot’s invention in 1852 .
For the longest time, it’ is true that we only knew of the woodcut pictures which were only created and obtained by arduous manual labor from an artist, sculpting virtually on a board of boxwood and engraving it, chiseling the art worked well. Thanks to an ingenious use of photography, they mechanically reproduced art on zinc or copper plates for the illustrations for the newspaper.
The process is similar, though more delicate and complicated for large color compositions, which were located on the first and last page of the Illustrated Diary. Note, however, we had a need to get as many pictures as there were colors in the universe. For black, blue, yellow and red, that’s four shots that would be later set on the press and on which turned the white paper into colorful art. Four colors, you say! But there were more than four colors in the prints that illustrated the newspaper? No doubt, but the green is obtained by superposition of blue and yellow and other colors by layering the same kind.
And they met the “copy” and illustrations clichés. Then begins the work of layout. This job runs on large tables that, for a very old tradition, we continue to call “home plate”. Under the supervision of Secretary of writing which indicates the position of articles and photographs, these are arranged in forms or large cast iron frames that tightly clasp. When this work is completed, it is, the content of each form, a race named special “morass.” The morasses are revised by the corrector, which seeks to track the latest faults are forgotten or layout errors.Then the editor examines in turn and, if it has no comment to make, given the right to shoot.
If we drew on hardware platforms, we could immediately bring these forms to the printer. But everyone knows that more these days, are used for rotating the huge prints of the great modern newspapers. Transformative work is still needed. He runs to the stereotype. There, introduced forms are placed in a special machine that molds them on a print taken by a kind of wide paper carton hurry. This blank, it curves to give the exact shape corresponding to the rotating rollers. Finally, each blank, and curved, is used to make one or more curved, and it is these images, the result of a sequence of transformations, which will finally get the newspaper.
The stereotype where the forms are used to make cylindrical clichés, is noted to the right. Now, this is the last part of whee the job execution begins on one of those admirable rotating machines in which the invention is due to Hippolyte Marinoni, both creator of modern printing and for many years director of the Petit Journal.
Under the orders of the chief driver, snapshots from the stereotype are set on the rollers of the machine and the big roll of paper begins to unfold its leaves through the endless maze of wheels, connecting rods and countless bodies of steel.
Despite the appearance, start-up demand meticulous care. Because of the four different inks used for color prints, you must engage in a very delicate work of identification. We must also adjust the pressure on the plates and the arrival of the inks so that the text is neither too gray or too dark. Finally everything is ready, after many hours of experience and tests. The great “roto” starts to devour the paper at full speed and make it in the form of copies printed, folded, cut, such that we can finally see, a few days later, in depositories and in newsagents all over France.
It will be appreciated by comparing two numbers, the benefits of rotary flat on the machine, it once drew an average of 2,000 sheets per day. The rotary Illustrated Diary , though less rapid than that of a newspaper, printed only in black, delivers 10,000 copies per hour. - R
The presses were used every week to get the ‘Petit Journal Illustrated and printed for circulation”
Thanks for reading about the history of this newspaper from 1894. If you have any tidbits of history to add or comments about the paper, or the history of the penny press I would welcome insights and additional information.
Now, onto finding out the history of my other little French newspaper printed March 1891, Le Soleil du Dimanche, all 16 pages!
With the impending death of paper, U.S. Post Offices and the decline of Newspapers, I have begun performing some preliminary research regarding one of two French newspapers I bought in a little book store in the south of France during my study abroad in 1994. I am beginning with “Le Soleil du Dimanche.” It is rather difficult learn anything about the history of this illustrative journal. I came across a list of newspaper resources and thought it might be useful to others. Once I find the scoop on this little 16 pager and Le Petite Journal, both printed in March 1891.
The Most Requested Newspapers
North Carolina Community Newspapers
Lists of Online Newspapers Worldwide
- 17th-18th Century Burney Collection Newspapers - Provides full text access to the British Library’s collection of the newspapers, pamphlets, books gathered by Reverend Charles Burney (1757-1817).
- 19th Century British Library Newspapers Collection - Contains full runs of newspapers specially selected to best represent nineteenth-century Britain.
- 19th Century U.S. Newspapers - Access to approximately 500 U.S. newspapers, published between 1800 and 1900.
- Adams Papers Digital Edition - The database comprises John Adams’s complete diaries, selected legal papers, and the ongoing series of family correspondence and state papers.
- Africa-Wide NiPAD - Provides multi-disciplinary coverage about African including politics, history, economics, business, mining, development, social issues, anthropology, natural history, literature, language, law, music and much more.
- African American Newspapers - Includes over 200 African-American newspapers, arranged by state.
- Alternative Press Index - Alternative Press Index Archive (APIA) is a bibliographic database of journal, newspaper, and magazine articles from over 700 international alternative, radical, and left periodicals.
- America’s Historical Newspapers, 1690-1922 - America’s Historical Newspapers allows users to search U.S. historical papers published between 1690 and 1922, including titles from all 50 states.
- America’s Newspapers: North Carolina - A quick link to the NC section of America’s Newspapers.
- Atlanta Constitution (1868-1939) - Offers full page and article images with searchable full text back to the first issue.
- Black Studies Center - Comprised of several cross-searchable component databases, including the International Index to Black Periodicals and historical black newspapers.
- Canadian Newsstand - This collection includes 21 national and leading regional newspapers, including: The Globe and Mail, National Post, Montreal Gazette, Ottawa Citizen, etc.
- Chicago Tribune (1849-1986)
- Factiva - Provides updated global information and news from major newspapers and business journals.
- Gallica Project on French Newspapers - Allows access to full text for the following French newspapers: Le Figaro and son supplement litteraire, Le Temps, La Croix, L’Humanite, La Presse, Le Journal des debats, Ouest-Eclair (editions de Rennes, Caen et Nantes).
- Guardian and The Observer - The Guardian (1821-2003) and its sister paper, The Observer (1791-2003) provide online access to facts, firsthand accounts, and opinions of the day about the most significant and fascinating political, business, sports, literary, and entertainment events from the past 200 years.
- Illustrated London News Historical Archive - Provides access to the entire run of the Illustrated London News from its first publication on 14 May 1842 to its last in 2003.
- Informe - Contains the full text of popular magazines, academic journals and selected newspaper articles in Spanish.
- InfoTrac Newsstand - provides indexing and full-text articles from major U.S. regional, national and local newspapers as well as leading titles from around the world.
- Kidon Media Link - Newspapers, periodicals and other media sources from around the world. Every country has its own integrated page. There are no separate pages for newspapers, magazines, television, radio and news agencies.
- Latin American Newsstand - Complete contents from over 35 full text Latin American newspaper titles in Spanish and Portuguese, with some additional content in English. Most coverage starts with 2005, though some go back to 1995.
- Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe - Provides full text access to a wide range of U.S. and international newspapers, radio and television transcripts. Covers general, business and legal information sources. Lexis-Nexis is available for the Duke Community only through this link.
- Los Angeles Times
- National Index to Chinese Newspapers & Periodicals - This is an index database of about 18,000 Chinese newspapers and periodicals published 1833-1949.
- NC Newspapers Online - It includes 23,483 digital images of papers dating from 1752 to the 1890s, including the collection of 18th century newspapers the State Archives has on microfilm. Included are the North Carolina Gazette (New Bern: April 14, 1775), various newspapers from Edenton (1787-1801), Fayetteville (1798-1795), Hillsboro (1786), New Bern (1751-1804), and Wilmington (1765-1816). In addition, the project includes the full run of two politically opposed newspapers from Salisbury, the Carolina Watchman (1832-1898) and The Western Carolinian (1820-1844). Finally, the project also includes three lesson plans, derived from these newspapers, entitled Idealized Motherhood vs. the Realities of Mother hood in Antebellum North Carolina; Teaching About Slavery Through Newspaper Advertisements; and “A Female Raid” in 1863, or Using Newspaper Coverage to Learn More About North Carolina’s Civil War Home Front.
- New York Times Book Review Archives - This is a full text archive of book reviews published in the New York Times since 1980. It covers over 50,000 books and authors, in reviews as well as in news and interviews. This database is listed on the Book Reviews subject list.
- News & Observer, 1991-Present; News & Observer, 2004-Present - NCLive now offers web access to full text articles from the Raleigh News & Observer through a database called InfoTrac Custom Newspapers. The News & Observer is covered from 1991 to the present.
- Newspaperindex.com - Newspapers and Front Pages in all countries.
- Newspaper Source - Contains selected full text articles from over 140 regional U.S. newspapers, several international newspapers, newswires, and the Christian Science Monitor. The emphasis is business-related articles, although articles about national and international news events are also included.
- North Carolina Periodicals Index - Produced by the Joyner Library at ECU, this free database provides indexing of articles from over 40 periodicals published in NC. Most of these periodicals are not covered by other indexes or databases. The Triangle’s “Independent Weekly” is one example.
- ProQuest Historical Newspapers - New York Times, full text, from 1851 to three years before the current date.
- ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Black Newspapers - Offers primary source material for the study of American history and African-American culture, history, politics, and the arts.
- Regional Business News - A collection of business journals, newspapers and news wires covering all metropolitan and rural areas within the U.S.
- Russian National Bibliography - allows users to digitally search the Russian Book Chamber’s (Knizhnaia palata) national bibliographies for citations from books, newspapers, journals, dissertation abstracts, musical scores, and maps.
- SRDS Media Solutions - Provides advertising media rates and advertiser data through its coverage of traditional media – such as magazines, newspapers, television, direct marketing, and radio – as well as online sources.
- Struggles for Freedom in Southern Africa - collection consists of more than 180,000 pages of documents and images, including periodicals, nationalist publications, records of colonial government commissions, local newspaper reports, personal papers, correspondence, UN documents, out-of-print and other particularly relevant books, oral testimonies, life histories, and speeches.
- Taiwan Nichinichi Shinpo - Keyword searching and full text of official newspaper of Taiwan during the Japanese colonial period, including both Japanese (1898.5 – 1944.3) and Chinese (1905.7 – 1911.11) editions.
- The Times Digital Archive, 1785-1985 - Provides full text access to The Times (London). The full newspaper (including advertisements and illustrations) is given with full-page or specific article access, along with a facsimile (PDF) version.
- Times of India - The Times of India (1838-2001) offers full page and article images with searchable full text back to the first issue.
- Universal Database of Central Russian Newspapers - A full-text database of over 40 newspapers from Russia, including some English-language publications. (Visual material like photos, graphs, and drawings are not included.) Accessible in English or Russian.
- Universal Databases - This interface provides a unified search engine for several of the Eastview Universal databases: Russian Central Newspapers (UDB-COM), Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press (UDB-CD), Social Sciences & Humanities (UDB-EDU), Voprosy istorii: Complete Collection (UDB-VI), and Voprosy literatury: Complete Collection (UDB-VL).
- Waterloo Directory of English Newspapers and Periodicals, 1800-1900 - A subject-inclusive, language-inclusive bibliography of newspapers and periodicals from Victorian England . Includes 6 alphabetical indexes: Title, Issuing body, People, Town, County, and Subject. Also included are titles in any language, published during any part of their life-span in England between January 1, 1800 and December 31, 1900.
- World News Connection - A fee-based service of the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) which provides translations by FBIS and JPRS of non-English newspapers, speeches, journals, and some media broadcasts from foreign countries. Translations are added within 24–72 hours of original broadcast/publication, and the database goes back to 2003. Some non-U.S. English-language news sources are also included.
- World Newspaper Archive - A fully searchable collection of historical newspapers from around the globe.
- Yomiuri Newspaper, 1986- - Includes full text of Yomiuri shinbun (from Sept. 1986- to the present, with local editions beginning in Dec. 1986); along with the English edition: the Daily Yomiuri (Sept. 1989- to the present), both searchable by article, keyword, subject category, and issue.